Prostaglandins are a family of chemicals that are produced by the cells of the body and have several important functions. They promote inflammation that is necessary for healing, but also results in pain, and fever; support the blood clotting function of platelets; and protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of acid.
Prostaglandins are produced within the body's cells by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). There are two COX enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2. Both enzymes produce prostaglandins that promote inflammation, pain, and fever. However, only COX-1 produces prostaglandins that support platelets and protect the stomach. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block the COX enzymes and reduce prostaglandins throughout the body. As a consequence, ongoing inflammation, pain, and fever are reduced. Since the prostaglandins that protect the stomach and support platelets and blood clotting also are reduced, NSAIDs can cause ulcers in the stomach and promote bleeding. Narcotics also referred to as opioid pain relievers are used only for pain that's severe and is not helped by other forms of painkillers. When used rigorously and underneath a doctor's direct care, these medications are often effective at reducing pain. Narcotics work by binding to receptors into the brain that blocks the sensation of pain. When used rigorously and underneath a doctor's direct care, they'll be effective at reducing pain. Antidepressant medication for treatment of depression as well as other different disorders that will occur alone or together with depression, like chronic pain, sleep disorders, or anxiety disorders. Antidepressants are medication used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and different conditions, chronic pain and neuropathic pain. Anticonvulsants, or anti-seizure medications, work as adjuvant analgesics. In different words, they can treat some forms of chronic pain even if they're not designed for that purpose. whereas the most use of anti-seizure medication is preventing seizures, anticonvulsants do seem to be effective at treating certain forms of chronic pain. These include neuropathic pain, like peripheral neuropathy, and chronic headaches like migraines.